November 14, 2019
  • 10:14 pm Transcendental Meditation: Mechanics of the Technique (Maharishi Mahesh Yogi)
  • 10:14 pm Vipassana Guided Meditation – Insight Practice
  • 10:14 pm Romanov Family | Faith in God to the End (with Helen Rappaport)
  • 10:14 pm Behind the Scenes of Ounce of Faith: Part 2
  • 9:14 pm To The Ends Of The Earth – Hillsong Worship
The Medieval Islamicate World: Crash Course History of Science #7


The religion of Islam significantly influenced
knowledge-making in the greater Mediterranean and western Asian world. Islamicate scholars—meaning people influenced
by Islamic civilization, regardless of their religious views—gave us terms such as “algebra,”
“azimuth,” “algorithm,” “alcohol,” “alkali,” and “alembic.” We’ll dive into Islamic medicine and philosophers
such as the great Persian polymath Ibn Sina in future episodes. For now, let’s explore the beginnings of
Islamicate natural philosophy. [Intro Music Plays] Islamicate power expanded rapidly after the
Prophet Muhammad’s death in CE 632. What began as one vast Arab-governed state
soon fractured into two spheres of political influence: a western one centered in southern
Spain, with a capital at Córdoba, and an eastern one including the great cities of
northern Africa as well as Arabia and Mesopotamia. This eastern empire, the highly urbanized
Abbasid Caliphate, existed in some form, increasingly fragmented,
from 750–1517. The Abbasid Caliphate was a crossroads or
trading zone for Persian, Indian, and Byzantine cultures, as well as for the religions of
Islam, Judaism, Christianity, and Zoroastrianism. Many languages flourished across the Abbasid
Caliphate, as they did in the Emirate of Córdoba. This blend of cultures and belief systems
made early Islamicate science cosmopolitan—that is, generally inclusive in character. A high literacy rate thanks to Islam’s focus
on the Qur’an meant that many people—well, noble men, at least—could study natural
philosophical texts. Further, Islam-the-religion called on its
adherents to treat others as equals, helping make Islamicate knowledge production more
egalitarian. And ongoing support by pious philanthropists
including heads of states allowed Islamicate polymaths to study natural phenomena systematically. Baghdad, the first Abbasid capital, was founded by its second caliph, al-Mansur, in 754. A sprawling metropolis quickly grew up around
the original, carefully planned city. And Baghdad became the largest urban area
in the world by 930, with a population of one million. Key for our story today: Baghdad housed the
Bayt al-Ḥikmah or House of Wisdom. This great library grew out of al-Mansur’s
private collection, which he opened up to visiting scholars, including delegations from
India. Al-Mansur’s successor, Caliph al-Rashid, carried on this tradition. Al-Rashid also supported the Translation Movement,
which we’ll get to shortly. But first, let’s reflect on his rule as
a great example of the cosmopolitan character of the early Abbasids. Charlemagne sent a mission from France to
al-Rashid’s court in 799 with gifts. So in 802, al-Rashid sent Charlemagne an embassy
including an elephant named Abul-Abbas and a water clock that featured clockwork knights
who emerged once per hour. You could see the elephant’s journey as
one origin of veterinary science: the Abbasid diplomats kept the elephant healthy walking
from India to Baghdad to France, and it lived for years after in captivity. And, to the Franks, the water clock was simply
mind-blowing, something they’d never even imagined! But it was al-Rashid’s successor, Caliph
al-Maʾmūn, who in 832 refounded the House of Wisdom specifically as an international
center for translation and research. Al-Maʾmūn was involved in the House’s
daily operations, and he sponsored knowledge production programmatically, inspiring his
successors to do the same. By 850, the House of Wisdom had become the
largest library in the world. Al-Maʾmūn sponsored families of scholar–translators to bring useful texts into Arabic from Greek,
Chinese, Sanskrit, Persian, and Syriac. This should be known as the “Useful Texts
into Arabic Movement” but, for some reason, is called the Translation Movement instead. This movement began with Persian texts concerning
astrology and astronomy. Remember that, across the ancient and medieval
worlds, astronomy was the study of the heavens, and astrology the study of the influence of
heavenly bodies on earthly matters. While both were studied, astrology was seen
as more useful. After texts about the stars, the translators
moved onto others. To feed this program, al-Maʾmūn sent emissaries
to collect Greek scientific manuscripts from the Byzantines—and began demanding them
as loot in war. The Translation Movement lasted from roughly
750–950. By 950, virtually every Greek scholarly text
had been translated multiple times, and the libraries were brimming. Many translators of Baghdad particularly fell
for the works of Aristotle. One of the greatest Islamicate philosophers,
Ibn Rushd, is sometimes called “The Commentator,” meaning the number-one
Aristotle fan. To this day, more classical Greek commentaries
on Aristotle may be available in Arabic than English! Why was Caliph al-Maʾmūn so into the Persian
and Greek science? For one, supporting translations was a sign
of civic status, and a worthy cause. Al-Maʾmūn also saw scientific translation
as highly practical. For example, a better understanding of astronomy
led to more accurate official timekeeping for mosques. And improved geographical knowledge helped
more accurately align prayers to Mecca. The Translation Movement also fostered a strong
appreciation for reasoned thought, at least among the ruling and scholarly classes. This rubbed off on religious philosophy, giving
rise to the school of mu‘tazilism. Mu‘tazila such as al-Maʾmūn believed that
rationalism could be used to understand both the physical world and God. They brought the Greek tradition of reasoned
debate about the nature of the cosmos into an Islamicate social context, looking beyond
a literal reading of the Qur’an for sources of knowledge. In fact, places of learning under the Abbasid Caliphate included observatories, hospitals,
and public libraries, as well as mosques and madrasas, or Islamic colleges. Madrasas were critical centers of knowledge
transmission. There were thirty in Baghdad in the 1200s,
and one hundred and fifty in Damascus by 1500. Each madrasa had its own library full of paper
books. Paper had been introduced to western Asia
from China, and paper factories appeared in Samarkand, Baghdad, Cairo, Morocco, and finally
in Spain by 1150. While they were religious centers, madrasas
were also places where students could learn law as well as Greek natural philosophy, including
logic and arithmetic, astronomy, and astrology. Abbasid scholars didn’t merely translate foreign writers. In translating the texts, these polymaths
wrote commentaries on them, comparing, summarizing, and analyzing them. Even when motivated by utilitarian concerns, the work of careful reading and comparison
led many scholars to pursue new questions in natural philosophy. For example, observatories arose throughout
the Islamicate world. Al-Maʾmūn built two observatories, one in
Baghdad and another outside Damascus. At these sites, scholars refined astronomical
handbooks, called zīj, that helped fix prayer times. In fact, by the late ninth century, Islamicate
polymaths such as Abu Maʿshar, the famous Persian physician al-Razi —whom
we’ll meet again soon—and the Indian-influenced al-Biruni were even proposing
heliocentric models of the solar system. Their theories went against Aristotle but
with observed data! In geography, Islamicate scholars extended
Ptolemy’s system. Our scientific hero today, Caliph al-Maʾmūn,
commissioned a measurement of earth’s circumference that was pretty amazing: two groups ventured
into the desert, finding a specific location by following the stars. One group walked north and the other south,
tracking the stars for one degree. They counted their paces. Then they walked back, remeasured, averaged
the measurements… and multiplied by 360 to derive a circumference of 24,480 miles. The modern measurement? 24,901—less than 2% more accurate than the
one made by al-Maʾmūn’s team. And don’t get me started on astrolabes! You know—mechanical devices used for measuring
incline by astronomers and navigators? To determine the position of celestial bodies
in the night sky? The ones Islamicate astronomers improved by
adding the azimuth, or direction of compass bearing? And then merged with armillary spheres, or
models of the entire cosmos constructed from rings and hoops that revolved on their axes,
around 900? And then improved into geared mechanical astrolabes
in 1235? I’m looking at you, Abi Bakr of Isfahan!? MEANWHILE—back at the House of Wisdom… In addition to translation and improvement
on Greek natural philosophy, scholars were also innovating in new realms. In mathematics, medieval Islamicate scholars
focused on arithmetic and algebra. They adopted the number zero and the “Arabic”
decimal-style numerals from India, using them so much that they became known to us as, well,
Arabic. They also developed trigonometry. One example of this work in particular jumps
out: in 820, at the House, Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi wrote Kitab al-Jabr, or The Compendious Book on Calculation by
Completion and Balancing, an original manual of practical math. Al-Khwarizmi wasn’t the first to work on
algebra, but he set out the general rules for solving equations that was highly influential
for centuries. Algebra introduced a theory that treated rational
numbers, irrational numbers, geometrical magnitudes—all numbers—as similar objects, ready to be
manipulated. Or, as my dude himself says it: “When I
consider what people generally want in calculating, I found that it always is a number.” Mic drop! This opened up the possibility of exploring
new areas of mathematics such as algorithms, quadratic equations, and polynomial equations. Also at the House of Wisdom, thinkers such
as Mohammad Mūsā worked on the basic laws of physics. Others focused on optics, performing many
experiments. And doctors and philosophers trained and traded
works. But what about the engineers—the scholars
working on technē instead of epistēmē? The Abbasid state privileged public service and the interests of the state, focusing on
improving useful arts such as hydraulic engineering and agricultural science. The Abbasids used the arch, rather than the
Greek post and lintel system. And they constructed large dams, waterwheels,
and qanats, or underground channels to tap groundwater. Abbasid technology thus resembled that of
the Romans, with craftspeople, not scholars, typically building actual stuff. But a few stand-out engineers from this time
period created wonders so—er—wondrous, that they deserve a little attention from
ThoughtBubble: In 850, at the House of Wisdom, the Banū Mūsā brothers—Mohammad,
just mentioned, and Ahmad and Hasan—wrote The Book of Ingenious Devices: a compendium of one hundred devices and how
to use them. This included the earliest programmable machine,
“The Instrument that Plays by Itself.” Medieval automation, whaaat!?h
And it gets cooler. In 1206—far from Baghdad, in what is now
Diyarbakır, Turkey—the polymath al-Jazarī wrote an
even more amazing book on machines: The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices
also covers one hundred machines, with instructions on how to build them. Most of these are trick vessels, but others
include water wheels, watermills, a giant water clock, elephant- and castle-shaped clocks,
fountains improving upon designs by the Banū Mūsās, a candle clock, and musical automata. Al-Jazarī even designed a water-powered,
perpetually-playing flute! How did these devices work? Well, it helped that al-Jazarī invented the
camshaft, which would make it into Europe by the 1300s, an early version of the crankshaft,
and the segmental gear. You can look up how these work online, but
the point is: our modern world runs on them, and this guy figured them out in medieval
times. That is so. Dang. Cool. But the coolest of al-Jazarī’s inventions
were his full-on automata—medieval robots. He made humanoid machines including one that
could serve water or tea. He made a flushing toilet with a nearby servant,
who refilled the basin when flushed. And the pièce de résistance: al-Jazarī
constructed a four-piece robot band that floated on a lake, entertaining party guests. The music? Most likely programmable, using tiny pegs
and levers. Thanks Thought Bubble! We could spend several more episodes on science
in the early Islamicate world. And we will come back to some of the people
and themes mentioned today. There’s a common understanding of the history
of medieval Eurasia and North Africa long-held by many English speakers is just plain wrong:
instead of a “dark age” defined by conflicts between Muslims and Christians who didn’t
understand one another, we encounter urban centers of trade and knowledge exchange populated
by natural philosophers with a keen desire to build upon earlier insights regardless
of their origins. Next time—we’ll build many cities and
one very long canal in the rich Middle Kingdom, China. Crash Course History of Science is filmed
in the Dr. Cheryl C. Kinney studio in Missoula, Montana and it’s made with the help of all
this nice people and our animation team is Thought Cafe. Crash Course is a Complexly production. If you wanna keep imagining the world complexly
with us, you can check out some of our other channels like Scishow, Eons, and Sexplanations. And, if you’d like to keep Crash Course
free for everybody, forever, you can support the series at Patreon; a crowdfunding platform
that allows you to support the content you love. Thank you to all of our patrons for making
Crash Course possible with their continued support.

Otis Rodgers

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100 COMMENTS

  1. Phylonyous Phunk Posted on February 6, 2019 at 9:19 pm

    LOL, I love the mariachi floating band!

    Reply
  2. NK Boss Posted on February 7, 2019 at 6:26 am

    Oh it's nice to know that Islam produced something other than terrorism lol 😂 😂 😂

    Reply
  3. Bryan Stewart Posted on February 14, 2019 at 11:43 pm

    Well what is the excuse now???

    Reply
  4. Asiya Ismail Posted on February 20, 2019 at 12:02 pm

    Just a big shout out to you, Hank for not using the anglicized names of all of the Muslim scientists and philosophers. An episode on the first Muslim Nobel Laureate would also be very welcome!

    Reply
  5. Shamoon Saljoghei Posted on February 23, 2019 at 12:14 am

    I hate how I've been deprived of advances by Muslims by learning history in school in Europe. There are, in certain hidden areas which show how the syllabus are taught to favour the west. I've heard more and more people tell me how syllabus in Europe is written to favour western history which can only be taught of as propaganda and bias. Forever I used to think Galileo was first to say Earth is round, which was taught as a fact. Getting older doing research I found out it was 6 centuries before Galileo that it was coined and proven by Muslims. But Muslims are founding fathers of what we call science and medicine now.

    Reply
  6. Mustapha Otmane Posted on February 24, 2019 at 4:37 pm

    Finally they is some intelligence in this world

    Reply
  7. Health And Fitness H&F Posted on February 25, 2019 at 9:14 am

    We Muslim made this world smart by Allah's helps 😊😊🥰🥰

    Reply
  8. Fatima Najî Posted on March 4, 2019 at 1:25 pm

    Islamic Golden Ages.. check Mr Jim Alkhalili documentaries.. Thanks!

    Reply
  9. Marchant of cabbage Posted on March 5, 2019 at 3:41 pm

    a golden age indeed

    Reply
  10. Pavan Talluri Posted on March 5, 2019 at 8:30 pm

    India map shown was wrong, please correct it immediately.

    Reply
  11. Free Cats Posted on March 13, 2019 at 9:36 pm

    to bad Islam is a Evil, murdering of non-believers, Gays of the roof throwing, warmongering, woman veiling, and other jest "beautiful" things religion.

    Reply
  12. Free Cats Posted on March 13, 2019 at 9:44 pm

    to bad if you were alive back then they would not hesitate meaning to kill you, if you did not have something you wanted that he could not get throw force

    Reply
  13. probo rahadianto Posted on March 16, 2019 at 8:11 pm

    I hope more newly atheist seeing this video so they don't continuously bashing how religion hindering the progress of science.

    Reply
  14. Afra The Cat Girl Posted on March 24, 2019 at 6:05 pm

    The Muslims r the ppl who created alot of the base of science, but they r not given credit 4 that.
    Thank Allah CrashCoruse didn't 🙂

    Reply
  15. Lovely Untamed Posted on March 25, 2019 at 3:46 am

    Everything originated in the Arab/Islamic world. Those "French" pastries, Arabic.

    Reply
  16. AHMED S Posted on March 29, 2019 at 1:02 am

    And then came the mongols and throws all books in Tigris river and killed thousands of civilians and also throws them into the river until the river was blue and red 😥😥😥

    Reply
  17. Shakeel Hamid Posted on March 31, 2019 at 12:30 am

    One isn't a Muslim if he doesn't read Islamic Golden Age.

    Reply
  18. amiralkook1 Posted on April 3, 2019 at 5:56 am

    Sorry there was no Golden age Thanks to say the truth about Persia. But I need to Add :
    First the name is Kharazmi like the city he was born in not Al Kharazmi he was not Arab. He was Persian and his name was Arabized. Like the name of Sina who has been Latinized to Avicen ( father of medicine) prevent people to understand that the roots of sciences are not European but from Iran.

    The first university in world was in Iran in 230 the name is GondiShapour. 370 years before Arab invasion.
    It’s easy to understand who brought culture to whom!
    To make it short Arabs were people of desert and totally illiterate they came in Iran or Persia ( Persia changed name in to Iran in 1935) During Arab invasion they destroyed and burned all books and tablets. Arabs attacked Byzantine empire first then Persian empire. Byzantine and Persians were weak and totally exhausted from years of battles. Persians has a 8 years old King and there were facing disagreements between local chiefs.
    Barmakians or Barmicides were a very famous Persian family who had made already schools for all Persian scientists. As a Persian Doctor a Member of Barmakian Family saved a Harun al Rashid family member , Harun al Rashid let the Iranian scientists working under Barmakians supervision . Arabs forced Iranians to translate their books and knowledges in to Arab. Kharazmi the famous Iranian scientist the father of Algebra and others worked in that schools but before the so called house of wisdom in « Bagdad » there was all infrastructure in the Iranian city Ctesiphon (Real name in Farsi is Tisphoon the capital of Persian empire )all that dynamic was transferred to the city next to Ctesiphon that became Bagdad or Bay dad , bay means god in old Persian daad : give) Now today Arabs and Muslims try to use Persian scientists to furnish their empty scientific universe with (who were mostly Zoroastrien but got Arabic names by force under Killings torture and taxes like they did in North Africa with Kabyls and Berbers)check the Arab invasion atrocities in TARIKH TABARI vol 3 to 16. ( once again Arabs are from Arabic peninsula , in all the other Muslim countries people are not Arabs. (If you are from an other Muslim country and you think you are Arab please go and read your real history.
    Arabs generally add "Al" before Persian names. Persians had many scientists such as Kharazmi the father of algebra and algorithm,Tusi(astrology , trigonometry) Razi,( alcohol)Banou,(mechanics) Sina named Avicenne (Medecin) Haytham ( blood circulation and relation with respiration, Rumi, kashi theorem of same name etc etc all their works and books has been translated to Arab then arrived to Europe by Arab merchants and invasion of North Africa then translated in monasteries in to Greek and Latina and used, copy by scientists Kepler,Copernic,Newton ,Descartes ,DaVinci etc. Some parts of their books are total plagia of Persian books with 100% same sketches.
    Persians had thousands of years of technological and cultural Advance so Islam or Arab invasion did not bring Sciences and Alphabet to Persia but the contras. Persians made an Alphabet to Arabs from Pahlavi so the Coran was written.
    So pls kindly go and Study exactly what happened before and propaganda about Arabs invasion and so called “golden age “. Islam and even Christianity (inquisition )were always against scientific theories and discovered. European scientists passed years to understand all the discoveries of those new informations coming written in Arabic . That’s why they thought all was Arabic. They thought 0 and all numbers were Arabic.
    If Islam and Arabs were so advanced , today Arabic Peninsula And North Africa would be Silicon Valley.
    The Persians glory has been stopped by Arab invasion and just after Mogol invasion that left Persia knock out.

    Reply
  19. The artists formerly known as Lil dookie shoes Posted on April 3, 2019 at 11:42 pm

    Al Jazari is just medieval Islamic Tony Stark

    Reply
  20. bob bobdr Posted on April 5, 2019 at 9:08 am

    Thank you crashcourse👌🏽

    Reply
  21. Louis chiraq Posted on April 6, 2019 at 3:24 pm

    Abbasid caliphate; exists

    Mongols: HIPPITY HOPPITY you are now my property

    Reply
  22. Life Game Posted on April 8, 2019 at 1:32 am

    It looks like Greeks are the faundetion for everythink. But all the inversions were pretty cool acualy.

    Reply
  23. Raf The Jaf Posted on April 8, 2019 at 6:23 pm

    This guy talks too fast!

    Reply
  24. Terfani Abdou Posted on April 12, 2019 at 6:22 pm

    This is all what we have for now , history ..

    Reply
  25. Muhammed L4M Posted on April 18, 2019 at 1:43 pm

    Madrasa is Arabic word for " School "

    Reply
  26. Tony Farrugia Posted on April 19, 2019 at 12:25 pm

    Islam the religion of hate it should be banned from all civilised countries

    Reply
  27. Samia Islam Posted on April 20, 2019 at 3:11 am

    I'm so glad this history is being more out-spoken. It really is amazing. Please make a separate Crashcourse section for Islamic History! It would help so many out!

    Reply
  28. klm klm Posted on April 23, 2019 at 11:27 pm

    Wonderful… muslims were scientist , theologians, thinkers but with time muslim lost their ways.. it happens to every civilization…

    Reply
  29. Hussain Aldlphi Posted on April 25, 2019 at 6:49 am

    1:39
    😂😂 this is not Quran

    Reply
  30. Azhar Khan Posted on April 25, 2019 at 5:53 pm

    505 ppl loved the dark ages.

    Reply
  31. Yvonn Wilder X Posted on April 25, 2019 at 10:09 pm

    Love your episodes always, nice to see a topic on old Islam culture. butt maybe you should illustrate a map while explaining about the people and capitals where it’s located. It will def help visualize and understand more quickly. 🖤🙏👌

    Reply
  32. Violent Gentleman Posted on April 27, 2019 at 1:39 am

    I hate Islam

    Reply
  33. FAwYam Posted on April 27, 2019 at 5:57 pm

    In the eyes of Islamic science, we are human world energy
    I have given the wisdom and knowledge that if you do not use them, then you will be accountable to me! I will not bring you to ruin I am not al-Qur'ân. I have not made any mistake. Do not get a little bit of education. Eqkara- Dear gentleman, the human brain has a low 1 million connection, one trillion activists can be used in the human body. Gave it! Now physics will use the conscience that will produce the weapon from the human body, the molecular bomb will fail – the proxy war system will be decomposed – Star Wars will not be needed! In the world, you can make a beautiful peace – for which Allah Almighty has given the exhortation and the Messenger; For the purpose of which the scholars gave the responsibility of society, by our religious scholars, only the Ahadith produces the bubbles in the name of the Quran, for which we came back, no scientist came I do not know if anyone has the courage to repeat these words!

    Reply
  34. Mob_Abominator Posted on April 28, 2019 at 12:46 pm

    History is written by those who win, losers have no say in it.

    Reply
  35. Eric_in_Atlanta Posted on April 29, 2019 at 5:27 pm

    FINALLY! The contributions of Islamic scholars to the sciences and mathematics is invaluable. Thanks for doing this video in particular.

    Reply
  36. Bob Jones Posted on May 3, 2019 at 9:56 pm

    Allah sucks cock.

    Reply
  37. DJ Mastoor Posted on May 14, 2019 at 9:05 pm

    Ma dar sa – nice try tho

    Reply
  38. Al Bert Posted on May 20, 2019 at 9:30 am

    “Cor-doba” 😂😂😂Come on lazy American, learn how to pronounce the city properly🤦‍♂️

    Reply
  39. Joshua Beard Posted on May 20, 2019 at 11:37 pm

    Wow, an actual mention of samarkand, or really central asia at all, in a mainstream history video. Neat

    Reply
  40. LUCKSON KATARAIHYA Posted on May 23, 2019 at 12:58 pm

    Why islamic and not arabic ?

    Reply
  41. -البلوي ALBLOWI Posted on May 29, 2019 at 4:50 am

    Arab empire will return 🇸🇦🏳🏴🕋🕌⚔❤

    Reply
  42. Mero3046 Posted on June 2, 2019 at 5:12 am

    Prophet Mohamed didn’t die he went up to heaven

    Reply
  43. 77ahhh Posted on June 6, 2019 at 1:40 am

    The Arab-Islamic civilization was great and had great achievements for all mankind, where it welcomed the participation of different races, nations and religions and created a civilization without us, we reached what we have reached today of technological development. I hope the Arabs will rejoice

    Reply
  44. Ibrahim est Posted on June 6, 2019 at 5:05 am

    0:13 Islamic scholars believed in the same religious view that there is No God But Allah and Prophet Mohammed is his servant and messenger.

    Reply
  45. a jsajd Posted on June 7, 2019 at 8:26 am

    and now , there is fortnite. 🤦‍♂️

    Reply
  46. Moslema Ahmmad Posted on June 11, 2019 at 11:10 pm

    So madrasa=college

    Reply
  47. Bill Boyd Posted on June 13, 2019 at 4:29 am

    Does he mention the Islamic view on slavery and human equality? Strange how none of the attention given to slavery in the USA is never focussed anywhere else!

    Reply
  48. N-Carter Posted on June 13, 2019 at 6:06 pm

    And there are people who claim that Muslims never contributed anything to science or to this world at all. Lesser known ones.

    Reply
  49. Ali Haider Posted on June 17, 2019 at 1:44 pm

    I'm amazed I wish Hollywood could make movies on such heroes despite promoting hatred by potraying muslims only as Terrorists.

    Reply
  50. WASSCE Tutorials Posted on June 18, 2019 at 5:41 am

    Fun fact: That picture of Arabic text shown is not the Qur'an!

    Reply
  51. Gutian Warrior Posted on June 18, 2019 at 5:22 pm

    We Kurds are proud of Al-Jaziri.
    What a shame that Kurds, and muslims in general have fallen to the standard we are at now. The Ummah needs a new golden age!

    Reply
  52. julinaonYT Posted on June 19, 2019 at 11:31 am

    Lol try asking for astrology lessons at madrasa these days..

    Reply
  53. perezsan1 Posted on June 19, 2019 at 8:06 pm

    Reminds me of the American history classes back in the day where they tell you what they wanted you to hear. Reality, Muslims killed countless people to force islam on others. What changed today? Nothing! Islam is the same violent religion who's destiny is to spread islam by force.

    Reply
  54. Abdimalik hassan Posted on June 22, 2019 at 6:17 pm

    Are u Muslim please?,so curious

    Reply
  55. Coaly boi Posted on June 23, 2019 at 9:34 pm

    I can't comprehend how some people can be so smart

    Reply
  56. Meek not Weak Posted on June 25, 2019 at 1:50 am

    Islam claim that it is a religion of peace, however, Christ said that He didn't come to bring peace but a sword. Islam is antichrist. Christianity is supposed to be a religion of love…but this Roman Catholic corrupted the reputation of the Church of Christ.

    Reply
  57. Angelina Marc Mountain Flower Posted on July 4, 2019 at 11:21 am

    Muslims have established a great sanctuary in the world through Islamic history There are great stations for Baghdad and Damascus to play a role in the rise of Europe Andalusia was a center of radiation in Europe when Islam entered Spain and spread out Progress, Progress and Prosperity In Europe, modern schools and universities have spread In the world he studied the sons of the kings of Britain and France in Baghdad and Andalusia Muslims have played a major role in the flourishing of the barn in India building the city of New Delhi building mosques Schools in India spread culture in the Indian subcontinent It was the efforts of Muslims Muslim scientists contributed to the development of human sciences in all aspects of physics, chemistry, mathematics and medicine Big names such as Jaber bin Hayyan Tawhidi In chemistry Ibn al-Nafis in medicine Ibn Sina Abu Ishaq See the history of Muslims in the world that they are true friends Truth

    Reply
  58. Malik C-C Posted on July 10, 2019 at 4:42 am

    Isis destroyed the oldest library for a reason. They trying to destroy all the good work ancestors created.

    Reply
  59. DL2R Posted on July 11, 2019 at 7:41 pm

    Cant't imagine how great the upcoming khilafah can be after hearing the greatness of the umayyads.. abbasids and the usmani ottomans.. each have their own speciality. And they held islam very high. Thats the secret.

    Reply
  60. Anirudh Shanbhag Posted on July 13, 2019 at 8:02 am

    Such a sad story, one of the cultures which improved from other countries and then fail by subjecting to fundamentalist philosophy. I think it's because the mosque and state became one. Else the Islamic world would have thrived without violence beautifully

    Reply
  61. Aldi Nazar Basuki Wijaya Posted on July 13, 2019 at 6:15 pm

    The fall of intellectual empire

    Reply
  62. Alex Obrien Posted on July 15, 2019 at 9:55 pm

    Wow can this guy get any more excited??

    Reply
  63. thermodynamics lec Posted on July 16, 2019 at 3:20 am

    if quran was so accurate why the chiristian religion rise? currently, Muslims are the least literate in this world.

    Reply
  64. thermodynamics lec Posted on July 16, 2019 at 3:22 am

    if quran is so scientific then why 95% terrorist of this world is MUSLIMS.

    Reply
  65. marshall de corazón Posted on July 17, 2019 at 8:35 am

    The religion of Islam influenced knowledge-making…yes because early Golden Age free thinkers like Avicenna/Ibn Sina rediscovered ANCIENT GREEK knowledge. We saw this this great Golden Age destroyed by the preaching of religious fundamentalist Al-Ghazali in the 13th century, science in Islam died & just look at the Muslim world, it is still dead.

    Reply
  66. Sameer Tariq Posted on July 22, 2019 at 11:11 am

    YEAH SCIENCE..
    .
    .
    .
    .
    .
    MUSLIM SCIENCE!!!!

    Reply
  67. Shabir Ahmed Posted on July 26, 2019 at 10:49 am

    Sir can I get all this info in pdf

    Reply
  68. Hm'd Posted on July 27, 2019 at 3:18 am

    Some ignorant say that believing in God contradicts or go against "SCIENCE".
    Islamic history proves otherwise.

    Reply
  69. basit reyaz mir Posted on July 27, 2019 at 7:34 am

    Muslim Persia:exists
    Mongols: I diagnose you with death

    Reply
  70. Sarah M Posted on July 27, 2019 at 11:22 am

    Wake up! O Ummah, Keep Going and Shine Again!

    Reply
  71. The Gnome Show Posted on July 29, 2019 at 11:21 pm

    There was no credit given to the Jews. Jews at that time lived in peace with Muslims and had over 70,000 Jews living in Baghdad or back then referred to as Bavel (Babble) there were 60 Jewish institutions called Yeshivas, the earliest version of schools. In the house. In the house of wisdom the Talmud was written the first organized law system that many of today's laws derive from. The Muslims got their idea of astrology from Jews since Jews for thousands of years before read the stars and moon (and still today do) to know when to pray and which direction Jerusalem is to pray towards. Many of these facts are proven by Jewish midevil traveler who wrote notes of the places he visited. Let's go back to when we had peace 🔯♥️☪️

    Reply
  72. gr8life12 Posted on July 30, 2019 at 12:16 am

    Cue cringy Muslims claiming credit for their religion totally unaware their very religion prosecuted those scientists to no ends calling them apostates hence why Islam hasn't contributed to science since then!

    Reply
  73. Jisan Zaman Posted on July 30, 2019 at 12:30 am

    "I'm looking at Abu Bakr of Isfahan" lol

    Reply
  74. Ahmad Imtiaz Posted on July 31, 2019 at 6:01 am

    Let's hope Muslims of today come out of "finding something written on a cloud or a bread" and actually carry the tradition of knowledge, wisdom and advancement in technology.

    Reply
  75. Nunya Beeswax Posted on July 31, 2019 at 1:02 pm

    Islamist love raping little girls and boys because their goat raping prophet Muhammad was a closet homosexual bottom.

    Reply
  76. Robyn Leigh Smith Posted on August 8, 2019 at 1:43 pm

    Why no thinkpad. Maps would help

    Reply
  77. Abed Al Hamid Abu Laban Posted on August 8, 2019 at 4:30 pm

    As a Muslim this makes me very proud, this show people (mostly in the west) that Islam isn’t terrorism, Islam forbids killing, Islam doesn’t say we hate women or hate any other religion… I feel sad for Islam today 🙁

    Reply
  78. Firko Kafi Posted on August 9, 2019 at 2:46 pm

    I am glad that you are trying to show some important things of the science history.
    Brains exist everywhere regardless of color, caste and creed.

    All we need to do is to destroy hates in the name of color, caste and creed.

    Reply
  79. Irfan Khan Posted on August 10, 2019 at 11:36 am

    Missing part is the Church monopoly over Christian world, brainwashed Christians against Muslims still going on through Jews controlled western media, just like the Crusaders who weren't Christians but paid soldiers and butchers, looters killed, raped and debt Christians more than Muslims, Templers were jews who debt Europe to fight war for them against Muslims, same thing happening again through brainwashing media against Muslims in the west. Radical, Fundamental, Terrorist, extremist and many other fake propaganda. These Jihadi groups are paid groups and they've massacred Millions of Muslims as compare to any other community. All the game is to destabilize, thereafter plunder and loot oil and minerals from small Muslim countries.

    Reply
  80. Muneeb Posted on August 10, 2019 at 6:30 pm

    Love Muslims Ummah(Muslim Nation) from Islamic Republic of Pakistan.

    Reply
  81. Syed Shahan Ali Posted on August 10, 2019 at 8:29 pm

    That is dang cool!

    Reply
  82. A Posted on August 12, 2019 at 1:33 am

    I had not realized that “islamicate” was being used, or accepted outside Hodgson.

    Reply
  83. RIFAH TASHFIA Posted on August 12, 2019 at 11:51 pm

    Eid mubarak!

    Reply
  84. lempira1421 Posted on August 14, 2019 at 5:05 pm

    The Muslims are away from their religion that's why the world is how it is one thing no one looks into is that Islam is the religion of Justice

    Reply
  85. django Posted on August 14, 2019 at 5:19 pm

    The Prophet said "If a house fly falls in the drink of anyone of you, he should dip it (in the drink), for one of its wings has a disease and the other has the cure for the disease." (Sahih Al-Bukhari: Volume 4, Book 54, Number 537)

    Reply
  86. django Posted on August 14, 2019 at 5:19 pm

    When the Meccans asked Muhammad to do a miracle to prove that he was Allah’s prophet, he supposedly reached up with his sword and cut the moon in half.

    vol. 4, nos. 830, 831, 832

    Reply
  87. Polak na 102 Posted on August 14, 2019 at 8:26 pm

    “algebra,” “azimuth,” “algorithm” and "al-Qa'ida"

    Reply
  88. Pyro-Nexus Posted on August 18, 2019 at 5:25 pm

    The secret of paper-making was actually stolen from China by the arabs, after they took Samarkand.

    Reply
  89. Sukossje Posted on August 18, 2019 at 7:45 pm

    Are you saying muslims had robots?

    Reply
  90. Osamah asmh Posted on August 20, 2019 at 6:49 am

    كنا عظماء 😭😢

    Reply
  91. Hamada Hijari Posted on August 22, 2019 at 4:53 am

    I feel sad for the muslims today but I believe that every nation has his own time,its just the media and the stereotypes about islam and muslims that drive me crazy they sadly got no credits just humiliation nowadays .

    Reply
  92. Dann V Posted on August 24, 2019 at 5:02 am

    The only things that made decline of the islamic science today is that they only believe that every knowledge is fit in one book

    Reply
  93. Merlinz Batgirl Posted on August 24, 2019 at 9:34 am

    He's giving the information but he's not telling you how and why they got to those territories and how brutal they got there

    Reply
  94. Lizard King Posted on August 25, 2019 at 10:39 am

    ahhh god the intro music is the WORST ever really it's terrible.. it's like a casio synth from the 80's playing a demo 🙁

    Reply
  95. zainab waseem9 Posted on August 29, 2019 at 6:08 am

    This is so cool

    Reply
  96. Blah Anger Posted on September 3, 2019 at 12:05 pm

    I knew this but hearing it summed up like this is pretty jaw dropping.

    Reply
  97. FiveLiver Posted on September 5, 2019 at 11:04 am

    "Islamicate scholars—meaning people influenced by Islamic civilization, regardless of their religious views" i.e. not actually Muslims. Christians, Jews, Zoroastrians, and Muslim heretics

    Reply
  98. Andrew Goering Posted on September 7, 2019 at 4:32 am

    c. 570 – The Prophet Muhammad is born in the city of Makkah, in Western Arabia, a city which had gained a monopoly on the caravan trade throughout the region…..

    Muhammad, an Arab, was born into the Banu Hashim clan of the larger Quraysh tribe, the very wealthy and powerful tribe that controlled the city of Makkah and that served as custodians of its sacred Ka'aba shrine, which housed hundreds of idols of pre-Islamic Arabian gods and goddesses, as well as other deities from all over the world of Late Antiquity…..

    The presence of the Ka'aba shrine had turned Makkah into a popular site of pilgrimage, and the Quraysh became very wealthy through their dominance of the caravan trade, and from using their city's status as a pilgrimage site to their economic benefit….

    However, Muhammad himself was born into the Banu Hashim clan of the Quraysh tribe, which was not nearly as prosperous or financially successful as other clans within the Quraysh, such as the Banu Umayyah (Banu 'Abd Shams), or the Banu Makhzum clans….

    c. 595 – Muhammad marries Khadijah bint Khuwaylid, a wealthy widow, who is older than he is, who became wealthy through the caravan trade…..

    c. 610 – Muhammad claims to have received revelations from Allah (God), after seeking solitude and spiritual contemplation in the cliffs and caves in the outskirts of Makkah…. At first, he kept this experience to himself, but he tells his wife, Khadijah, and she becomes his first believer….

    c. 613 – Muhammad begins preaching his message of Islam openly in Makkah…..

    Muhammad's message is that Allah (God) is the only god, and that are no other gods than God, that is, the God of the ancient Israelites, but he has no associates or sons or relation whatsoever…..
    Jesus is simply one of Allah's great prophets, and none will share with God in his divinity or glory…..
    He preaches that the worst sin one can commit is to associate a partner with Allah (God), who alone created the universe and all that is in it, as well as disbelieving the message and warning of Allah's prophets, and being wicked and cruel towards your fellow person… His message is a message of strict monotheism and complete submission to Allah….

    Muhammad claims to receive revelations intermittently from c. 610 until his death in 632 CE…..

    His message is initially only received by a few followers, and the leaders of the wealthy Quraysh tribe oppose Muhammad and persecute him and his followers, because they see him as a threat to their society and their traditions, as well as to their economic prosperity, since so much of their wealth is derived from the status of the Ka'aba, with all of its idols, as a sacred site of pilgrimage……

    622 – After being invited to serve as a mediator, or arbiter, between the warring tribes of the oasis town of Yathrib (located north of Makkah), Muhammad sends his followers on ahead of him to Yathrib, and follows them shortly after escaping an attempt on his life by the Quraysh……

    This journey to Yathrib, later to be renamed Madinat an-Nabi, that is
    'the City of the Prophet', or simply 'Madina', is called the 'Hijrah, meaning 'the emigration', and marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar……

    624 – At the Battle of Badr, Muhammad and the Muslims defeat the Quraysh of Makkah in the first large scale battle between the two sides…..
    Muhammad attributes the victory to divine intervention….

    630 – the Muslim conquest of Makkah… Muhammad enters Makkah with his Muslim army and conquers Makkah, in a nearly bloodless conquest, going to the Ka'aba shrine in the center of the city, clearing it out of all its idols, and dedicating it to Allah (God)….

    632 – Muhammad gibes his last revelation, and then dies in Madinah…..

    Reply
  99. marco haase Posted on September 8, 2019 at 4:55 pm

    Comments:
    90% Muslim Names
    9% Don't care

    Reply
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